The new version of the "Influenza Vaccination Guidelines" is released, and these children are the key vaccination groups

time:2022-11-27 author:Sneeze
The new version of the "Influenza Vaccination Guidelines" is released, and these children are the key vaccination groups

*For medical professionals to read for reference About flu vaccination, see what the latest guidelines say? Recently, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the "Technical Guidelines for Influenza Vaccination in China (2022-2023)", which was updated and revised on the basis of the 2021 version of the guidelines: Main Updates 1. Added new research evidence, especially in my country. The research results include influenza disease burden, vaccine efficacy, vaccine safety monitoring, and cost-effectiveness of vaccine vaccination; 2. Update the relevant influenza prevention and control policies and measures issued by the state in the past year; 3. Update my country's 2022-2023 domestic Approved types of influenza vaccines for marketing and batch issuance; 4. Updated the current year's trivalent and quadrivalent influenza vaccine components; 5. Updated the influenza vaccination recommendations for 2022-2023. This guideline is briefly sorted out, mainly including 7 parts, namely, influenza vaccination population, vaccination type, vaccination frequency, vaccination timing, vaccination site and method, vaccination contraindications, simultaneous vaccination with other vaccines and the impact of drugs on vaccines Let's take a look together~ These 5 groups of people should be vaccinated in time! The following key and high-risk groups are recommended for timely vaccination: 1. Medical personnel, including clinical rescue personnel, public health personnel, health quarantine personnel, etc.; 2. Large-scale event participants and security personnel; 3. Elderly care institutions, long-term care institutions, welfare Vulnerable people and employees in crowd gathering places such as hospitals; 4. People in key places, such as teachers and students in kindergartens, primary and secondary schools, detainees and staff in prison institutions, etc.; 5. Other high-risk groups of influenza, including 60-year-olds The elderly at home and above, children aged 6 months to 5 years old, people with chronic diseases, family members and caregivers of infants under 6 months old, and pregnant women. ▌ Do patients with chronic diseases need to be called? What about children under 6 months old?
  • Patients with chronic diseases include cardiovascular diseases (except pure hypertension), chronic respiratory diseases, liver and kidney insufficiency, blood diseases, neurological diseases, neuromuscular dysfunction, metabolic diseases (including diabetes) and other chronic diseases Patients, those with immunosuppressive diseases, or those who are immunocompromised are at high risk for severe illness following influenza and should be given the flu vaccine as a priority.
  • Since the current influenza vaccine cannot be given directly to infants under 6 months of age, this population can be protected against influenza by vaccinating the mother during pregnancy and vaccinating the infant's family members and caregivers.
Which vaccine is more effective? The updated composition of influenza vaccines in China in 2022-2023 includes trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3), quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) and trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3). IIV3 includes split vaccine and subunit vaccine, IIV4 is a split vaccine and LAIV3 is an attenuated vaccine. Trivalent inactivated vaccines include split vaccine and subunit vaccine, which can be used for ≥ 6 months of age, including 0.25ml and 0.5ml; quadrivalent vaccine is split vaccine, which can be used for ≥ 6 months of age vaccination, including 0.25 ml There are two dosage forms of ml and 0.5ml; the trivalent live attenuated vaccine is a freeze-dried preparation, used for people aged 3 to 17 years, and each dose is 0.2ml. The 0.25ml dosage form contains 7.5μg of each component hemagglutinin, which is suitable for infants aged 6-35 months; the 0.5ml dosage form contains 15μg of each component hemagglutinin, suitable for people over 36 months old. The 0.2ml dosage form contains A (H1N1) pdm09 and A (H3N2) two attenuated virus titers of not less than 6.9 lg EID50 (50% egg infectious dose, EID50), containing B (Victoria) attenuated virus titers not less than 6.9 lg. Below 6.4 lg EID50. For people who can be vaccinated with different types or different manufacturers of vaccine products, the recipients can choose to vaccinate any influenza vaccine voluntarily, and there is no priority recommendation. How is the number of vaccinations determined? For IIV, children aged 6 months to 8 years old should receive 2 doses of influenza vaccine for the first time, with an interval of ≥4 weeks; children who have received 1 or more doses of influenza vaccine in 2021-2022 or before are recommended to receive 1 dose; Children 9 years and older and adults only need 1 dose. For LAIV, only 1 dose is given with or without influenza vaccine. Timing of vaccination: It is no longer emphasized to be vaccinated before the end of October. Influenza can be vaccinated at all stages throughout the year. In temperate regions, influenza is seasonal and high in winter and spring every year. In tropical regions, especially in Asia, the seasonality of influenza is highly diverse, ranging from semi-annual or annual cyclical epidemics to annual circulation. Since March 2020, influenza has shown a very low prevalence level in my country; the influenza activity in southern provinces has increased slowly from the end of 2020 to September 2021, and the northern provinces have only experienced short-term low-level epidemics from March to May 2021; since 2021 Around October of this year, the northern and southern provinces began to enter the autumn and winter high incidence season and reached the winter peak in early 2022, and gradually dropped to a low level in March 2022, mainly B (Victoria) series. Since May 2022, influenza activity in southern provinces of my country has continued to increase again, entering a high summer season, reaching the highest level in the same period in the past 5 years, with A(H3N2) subtype as the absolute dominant strain; influenza activity in northern provinces was low during the same period. Level. Usually 2 to 4 weeks after the flu vaccine, protective levels of antibodies are produced. The time and duration of the peak influenza activity varies from year to year in different parts of my country. In order to ensure that the inoculated recipients can obtain immune protection before the high influenza season, it is recommended that the vaccination work be arranged as soon as possible after the vaccine is popularized, and it is best to complete the immunization before the local influenza season. , vaccination units can provide immunization services throughout the epidemic season. In the same influenza season, those who have completed the whole course of vaccination according to the vaccination program do not need to be vaccinated repeatedly. Pregnant women can be vaccinated against influenza at any stage of pregnancy, and it is recommended that they be vaccinated as soon as the current year's influenza vaccine becomes available. Site and method of inoculation
  • The inoculation of IIV was intramuscular injection. The deltoid muscle of the upper arm is the first choice for adults and children over 1 year old. The anterolateral thigh is the best vaccination site for infants aged 6 months to 1 year old.
  • LAIV is administered by intranasal spray and injection is strictly prohibited.
Contraindications for vaccination
  • Those who are allergic to any ingredients (including excipients, formaldehyde, lysing agents and antibiotics) contained in the vaccine or have a history of severe allergy to any influenza vaccine, Vaccination is prohibited. For patients with acute disease, severe chronic disease or acute exacerbation of chronic disease and fever, it is recommended to be vaccinated after recovery or stable disease control. In patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome within 6 weeks of previous influenza vaccination, it is recommended to consider whether to be vaccinated after evaluation by a doctor.
  • The following groups are prohibited from vaccinating LAIV: ① Those with low immune function due to drug use, HIV infection, etc.; ② Children and adolescents who have been treated with drugs containing aspirin or salicylic acid for a long time; ③ 2 to 4 years old Children with asthma; ④ Pregnant women; ⑤ Those with a history of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS); ⑥ Those who have used antiviral drugs such as oseltamivir and zanamivir 48 hours before vaccination, or Those who used peramivir 5 days before vaccination, or baloxavir 17 days before vaccination.
  • Inoculation is contraindicated for egg allergy.
Can I be vaccinated at the same time as the new crown vaccine?
  • New crown vaccine: People aged 18 and over can receive inactivated influenza vaccine and new crown vaccine on both limbs when receiving immunization services at one time; people under 18 years old are recommended to have flu vaccine and new crown vaccination interval Still greater than 14 days.
  • Non-COVID-19 vaccines: IIV and other inactivated vaccines and live attenuated vaccines such as pneumococcal vaccine, herpes zoster vaccine, chickenpox vaccine, measles vaccine, and DTP vaccine can be vaccinated at different sites at the same time However, after LAIV inoculation, other live attenuated vaccines must be administered at an interval of more than 28 days. Elderly people over the age of 65 can receive inactivated influenza vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine at the same time. Note: In terms of drugs, the use of immunosuppressants (such as corticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs, or radiation therapy) may affect the immune effect after vaccination. IIV can also be given during influenza antiviral prophylaxis and treatment.
References: [1] "Technical Guidelines for Influenza Vaccination in China (2022-2023)" Source of this article: Clinical Pharmacy Channel of the Medical Community All Pediatric Clinical Knowledge Doctor Station App 👇 1. Scan the QR code below 2. Click "Download Now" to download the Doctor Station App, and subscribe anytime, anywhere ~ Copyright Statement This article is reproduced, please contact for authorization - End - The medical community strives for it The published content is accurate and reliable when it is reviewed and approved, but it does not make any commitments and guarantees for the timeliness of the published content and the accuracy and completeness of the cited materials (if any), nor does it assume that the content is outdated. , any liability arising from possible inaccuracies or incompleteness of the quoted material. Relevant parties are requested to check separately when adopting or using it as a basis for decision-making.
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