The child does not sleep well and is short in stature. It is recommended to go to the hospital to investigate the disease

time:2022-12-09 author:Maternal-Child Nursing
The child does not sleep well and is short in stature. It is recommended to go to the hospital to investigate the disease

Sleep is particularly important for children's physical health, which is related to their growth and development, nervous system development, and more. Therefore, this "sleep killer" - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, parents must pay attention. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, the name is particularly long and awkward, but it can also be seen that this is not a single disease, but a series of syndromes. It refers to the frequent partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway (including the nose, pharynx and larynx) in children during sleep, which will interfere with the normal ventilation and sleep structure of children, resulting in a series of physiological and pathological changes. The disease can appear in anyone, but the most common high-risk group is children 2-6 years old, with an incidence of 1%-5% in children. Among them, children with the following three conditions are more likely to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: ① Children with various congenital diseases: such as premature birth, Down syndrome, neuromuscular diseases (such as muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, etc. ), head deformities (such as tooth deformities), achondroplasia, and congenital central hypoventilation disorders, etc.; ② children with obesity and adenotonsillar hypertrophy; ③ often exposed to second-hand smoke, or allergic rhinitis , asthmatic children. There is also a theory that genetic factors can also cause obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but this is still controversial. However, according to research, there are some clinical syndromes that are closely related to it, such as: Down syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (a congenital overgrowth disorder, usually before birth, there may be excessive growth After birth, neonatal hypoglycemia may occur, accompanied by macroglossia, visceral enlargement, hemimegaly, and special creases and small depressions on the ears), Prader-Willi syndrome (also known as small Fat Willie syndrome is a rare hereditary disease. In neonates and infancy, it is mainly manifested as hypotonia, feeding difficulties, slow growth and easy lethargy, and repeated respiratory tract infections).

So, what does obstructive sleep apnea syndrome look like?

As the name suggests, its main manifestations are poor breathing, such as labored breathing, apnea, sleep suffocation, mouth breathing and snoring (especially frequent or loud snoring) and so on. If the situation is severe, the following series of symptoms may also appear: ① growth retardation; ② facial development deformation (such as adenoid face); ③ poor mental state during the day, drowsiness, especially want to sleep, and inability to concentrate, appear Problems with hyperactivity, rebelliousness, impulsiveness, or other aggressive behaviors; ④ Cardiopulmonary diseases, including ventricular hypertrophy, cardiac insufficiency, cor pulmonale, and hypertension; ⑤ Hypercapnia and hypoxemia, such as: Poor breathing, rapid pulse, etc. This is because when these children sleep, their breathing is blocked due to airway obstruction, so they can neither get enough oxygen nor expel carbon dioxide normally, which results in high carbon dioxide content and low oxygen content in the blood, so that for both symptoms. If parents suspect that the child's poor sleep quality at night may be caused by obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, they should seek medical attention in time, and make professional judgments through professional doctors to improve nighttime polysomnography.

How should this disease be treated?

①For children with mild disease, observation and evaluation (up to 6 months) can be carried out first, and then supportive treatment can be given. For example: weight loss guidance for obese babies, guidance on healthy sleep behavior and sleep hygiene, nasal spray with physiological seawater or saline as needed for dry or scabbed nasal mucosa. ② Adenotonsillectomy is the first choice for children with adenotonsillosis who are otherwise healthy. This needs to be fully evaluated by an expert, and then a decision on whether to proceed with the operation is made together with the parent. ③ tracheotomy. This surgical approach is the ultimate surgical treatment. Most patients who require this procedure have a collapsed airway due to hypotonia due to a neuromuscular condition or have severe craniofacial abnormalities. ④ Non-surgical treatment methods, such as positive airway pressure therapy, can also be taken. It allows children to wear a mask to put pressure on the airway, thereby preventing nasal, pharyngeal and laryngeal obstruction, reducing sleep disruption and breathing difficulties. However, it may cause adverse reactions such as nasal symptoms (such as nasal congestion, snot, etc.), eye irritation symptoms (eye irritation, conjunctivitis, etc.) and skin damage or even ulcers, and may also cause abnormal facial development or abnormal tooth development.

If a child has obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, what should parents be aware of in their daily life?

①Relieve symptoms by adjusting lifestyles. Pay attention to letting children avoid substances that are prone to allergies, such as pollen, mold, mites and cockroaches. Pharynx and larynx increased respiratory resistance. While your child is sleeping, you can use positional therapy, such as raising the head of the bed or sleeping on your side, to make breathing easier. ② Avoid obesity by adjusting the dietary structure Parents should pay attention to keeping their children balanced, develop healthy eating habits, eat regularly, eat small meals and do not skip meals, eat more vegetables and fruits, and eat less sweets and processed foods to avoid overweight or obesity. Because this increases upper airway resistance, it may worsen symptoms.
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