Common diseases of infants and children and how to deal with them

time:2022-11-27 06:16:11source:monlittlebaby.com author:Make one's mouth water
Common diseases of infants and children and how to deal with them

It is unavoidable that children often get sick. If they go to the hospital every time they get sick, many parents will be exhausted. What common infectious diseases does the child have and under what circumstances do they need to see a doctor?

Cold

Kindergarten and school-going children have an average of 6-12 colds per year. In autumn and winter, the frequency of colds is basically once every two weeks. That is to say, one cold just happens to be the next one. Common symptoms of a cold are fever, runny nose, stuffy nose, sore throat, cough, and poor appetite. If the child's fever has subsided and the mental state is good, you can observe it at home. Give the child a fever, drink plenty of water, clean the nasal cavity with sea salt water, and drink some honey water to help cough. Generally, a cold lasts for 3-5 days, and the symptoms will gradually improve, and it will take about 1-2 weeks to fully recover. Seek medical attention if your child is younger than 6 months, or has a fever for more than 72 hours, or is not feeling well after the fever has subsided, or has a worsening cough, or has difficulty breathing, or has decreased urine output due to insufficient fluid intake. The vast majority of healthy children who suffer from a cold will not have comorbidities. Pay attention to observe the changes in the child, take care of them carefully, and seek medical attention in time if there is any problem.

Bronchiolitis

is more common in infants and young children, mostly caused by respiratory syncytial virus infection, which often occurs in winter. Common manifestations of bronchiolitis are fever (possibly low-grade), severe nasal congestion, thick nasal discharge, cough, and difficulty breathing. The disease is very dangerous for premature babies, so if a premature baby has the above symptoms, seek medical attention immediately. Parents of healthy infants and young children should also pay attention to observation. If they have difficulty breathing (for example, the breathing rate is significantly faster than usual, the breathing is labored or the lips are purple), they should seek medical attention immediately. If it is only nasal congestion and low fever, you can try antipyretics and clean the nasal cavity with sea salt water, and pay attention to adding fluids. Treatment is generally supportive, with oxygen-deficient children needing oxygen, and sometimes doctors recommend nebulized bronchodilators to ease wheezing. Bronchiolitis can be cured on its own. Prevention: Adults and other children should pay attention to hand washing, face washing and changing clothes before contacting infants and young children when returning home in autumn and winter, so as not to transmit the virus to children.

Laryngitis

Laryngitis is mostly caused by viral infection, more common in autumn and winter, and more common in preschool age and school-age children. Common symptoms include fever, nasal congestion, barking cough, and difficulty breathing. Children with laryngitis need to seek medical attention. For children with mild symptoms, the doctor will recommend reducing fever, cleaning the nasal cavity and taking an oral dose of dexamethasone. Moderate and severe cases require treatment with hormones, nebulized epinephrine, etc. It is especially important to note that children with laryngitis may change rapidly, and the edema of the throat can sometimes completely block the airway and lead to life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention in time.

tonsillitis

is more common in school-age children and is more common in winter. Common pathogens are viruses and group A streptococci. Children often present with fever and sore throat;
  • children with viral infection also have nasal congestion and cough
  • streptococcal infection. The child will have swollen lymph nodes in the neck, and some have a rash.
The doctor will follow the medical history and physical examination to see if streptococcus is needed. If it is confirmed to be streptococcal infection, antibiotics are needed. Viral infection can only be symptomatic and supportive therapy, waiting for self-healing. Prevention should pay attention to personal hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and not sharing tableware and other utensils with others.

Pneumonia

Most children infected with pneumonia are viral infections, which are more common in autumn and winter. Pneumonia generally presents as fever, cough, rapid breathing, dyspnea, chest pain, and bruising. Treatment of viral pneumonia is supportive only, while bacterial pneumonia requires antibiotics. Prevention needs to pay attention to inoculating Hib (Haemophilus influenzae b) and pneumonia 13-valent vaccine on time, and pay attention to wearing masks indoors and washing hands frequently. The most common cause of fever and cough in children in autumn and winter is a cold. If there are no special circumstances, you can try to reduce the fever and drink more water at home. If it does not relieve, you should seek medical treatment in time.
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