In the beginning of the school season, teachers are most afraid of the 5 diseases, which are highly contagious. Judge + prevent once and make it clear

time:2022-11-27 05:29:47source:monlittlebaby.com author:Baby care
In the beginning of the school season, teachers are most afraid of the 5 diseases, which are highly contagious. Judge + prevent once and make it clear

When the school starts, there is a high incidence of various infectious diseases. Coupled with the epidemic, teachers and parents must take precautions. Today, we have sorted out the prevention and nursing measures of 5 kinds of infectious diseases that are very common in schools. Parents should remember to collect them.

Influenza

Unlike the common cold, the flu is an acute respiratory infection caused by influenza virus infection. The incidence rate is as high as 20%. Children aged 5-9 have the highest infection rate. In particular, children under the age of 5 have a higher risk of severe illness after contracting the flu.
  • Characteristics of the disease
Influenza generally has a rapid onset, the body temperature may exceed 39 degrees Celsius, and the high fever does not go away, generally lasts for 3-5 days, and may experience chills and chills , cold hands and feet and other symptoms. A dry cough, sore throat, runny nose, sometimes diarrhea, and vomiting may also occur.
  • Home Care
1. Take fever-reducing medicines as prescribed by your doctor. At the same time, according to the baby's condition, add enough water in time. 2. After antiviral diagnosis of influenza, infants under 2 years old (with high risk of complications within 2 years old) and children with severe flu symptoms can follow the doctor's order and take oral antiviral drug - oseltamivir for treatment. Parents are reminded that the principle of this drug is to inhibit virus replication, so it should be taken as soon as possible. 3. Pay attention to the diet During the period of illness, the baby should be fed several times and a small amount of milk; the older baby should pay attention to a light diet, but do not force the child to eat. 4. Isolation Influenza is a contagious disease. Once diagnosed, isolation can be considered as soon as possible, especially for families with two treasures.
  • Precautions
1. Get the flu shot. The most effective preventive measure at present is the flu vaccine. Babies over 6 months old are recommended to be vaccinated every year. 2. Drug prophylaxis. If you have a history of exposure to influenza, you can give your child oseltamivir prophylaxis after consulting a doctor before symptoms appear. 3. Take precautions. Wash your hands with soap or hand sanitizer before meals, after going to the toilet, and after going out. At the same time, try to avoid going out when the flu is high.

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease

Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is common in children under 5 years of age.
  • Characteristics of the disease
Hand, foot and mouth disease is a red rash or blisters on the palms, soles, and mouth of children. Similar symptoms may also appear in the child's knees, buttocks, upper limbs. There may also be symptoms of fever.
  • Home Care
Although hand, foot and mouth disease is highly contagious, most cases are mild and usually resolve on their own within a week. When sick, to prevent dehydration, give your child a small amount of water several times. Because oral herpes can cause pain, pay attention to giving your child a soft, rotten liquid food that is cooler. Avoid salty, sour, spicy and hot food to reduce discomfort when swallowing. If you have a fever, you can take antipyretics as prescribed by your doctor.
  • Preventive measures
1. Vaccination: Babies over 6 months old can be vaccinated against hand, foot and mouth disease. 2. Wash hands frequently, ventilate frequently, disinfect supplies and toys regularly, and try to avoid going to public places such as ocean ball pools and public slides that are crowded and cannot be guaranteed to be clean.

Herpetic angina

Herpetic angina, most common in children 5-7 years old. Common in summer and autumn.
  • Characteristics of the disease
The disease usually develops herpes in the isthmus, with obvious pain and high fever above 39 degrees Celsius. Some babies also have low-grade fever.
  • Home care
There is no cure for herpetic angina, but it can heal on its own within 7-10 days. Because the disease is contagious in the later stage, it is necessary to isolate for two weeks during the onset. 1. Relieve fever and sore throat with medication. When you have a fever, take medicines to reduce the fever as prescribed by your doctor. Sore throats can be relieved by eating some iced food. 2. Eat a light diet and maintain oral hygiene. Try to eat soft and rotten liquid food, light and easy to digest, do not eat irritating food. Rinse your mouth with warm water after each meal to maintain oral hygiene. 3. Guaranteed rest. Within a week of the onset of the disease, it is important to avoid excessive fatigue and rest for the recovery of the disease.
  • Preventive measures
1. Vaccination: It is recommended to take over the hand, foot and mouth disease vaccine to achieve the purpose of preventing the above two diseases at the same time. 2. Parents and babies should wash their hands thoroughly before and after eating, after going home, and after changing diapers.

Norovirus infection

Norovirus is a gastroenteritis disease.
  • Characteristics of the disease
After the onset of the disease, the child is mainly vomiting, and may also be accompanied by symptoms such as nausea, stomach pain, fever, headache, and fear of cold. This virus is highly contagious, has a short incubation period, and mutates quickly. Both adults and children are vulnerable to being recruited, and may be infected repeatedly.
  • Home care
Norovirus infection is a self-limiting virus, generally a short course of disease, about 2-3 days can be self-healing. 1. Vomiting: You can temporarily fast, and then try to eat. If you don’t vomit, you can continue to eat small and frequent meals. Pay attention to the diet as light and nutritious as possible. If vomiting persists, seek medical attention immediately. 2. Diarrhea: Norovirus can cause diarrhea in babies. The most important thing about diarrhea is to prevent dehydration. If the baby is found to be mildly dehydrated, it is recommended to give the baby an appropriate amount of oral rehydration salts. Seek immediate medical attention if you are moderately or severely dehydrated. 3. Scientific fasting: Babies with diarrhea or vomiting need more energy, especially liquid or semi-liquid foods such as breast milk and porridge. If vomiting is frequent, consider temporarily fasting, preferably 4-6 hours, but be careful not to prohibit drinking water.
  • Precautions
1. Eat well-cooked food, drink boiled water, and wash your hands frequently. Because norovirus is transmitted by fecal-oral transmission, it is necessary to enter the customs through the mouth. 2. Isolate suspected infected persons and those with symptoms of infection. 3. Use disinfectant to disinfect the environment and supplies in an all-round way.

Chickenpox

Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease that spreads primarily through droplets and direct contact. Late winter and early spring are high incidence periods, and they are susceptible to infection at any age, and preschool children have a higher incidence.
  • Characteristics of the disease
The incubation period for chickenpox is long, about half a month. 1-2 days after the incubation period, symptoms of fever, lethargy, cough, loss of appetite and mild diarrhea appear. For about 2-4 days, fever and an itchy rash develop. It starts out as a red rash and later forms clear blisters, like dew drops on flowers and leaves in the morning. Herpes first appeared on the head and face, then on the trunk, and then gradually spread to the limbs, and finally developed to other parts. Soon the blister sags wither and eventually scabs over. After scabbing, the rash gradually healed over a few weeks.
  • Home Care
Chickenpox is also a self-limiting disease that can heal on its own and usually subsides in about 10 days. Key issues to be aware of in parental care are isolation and prevention of scratching. 1. Isolation: Chickenpox is an acute infectious disease. It is contagious during the outbreak and requires isolation. 2. Avoid scratching. Chickenpox will fall off on its own after a period of time. Be extra careful not to scratch it to avoid re-infection with bacteria. Parents can trim their baby's nails, wear soft and breathable clothes, and under the guidance of a doctor, apply and take medicines to relieve itching. 3. You can take acetaminophen to reduce fever when you have a fever. 4. During the illness, pay attention to a light diet, avoid spicy food, and drink plenty of water.
  • Preventive measures
1. Get the chickenpox vaccine. 2. Avoid contact with patients who are suffering from chickenpox. At the same time, pay attention to resolutely avoid touching and using things that the patient has used. 3. Develop good hygiene habits, wash hands frequently, and ventilate the room frequently.
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