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What is type 1 diabetes?

time:2022-12-02 author:Make one's mouth water
What is type 1 diabetes?

Case Notes

A three-year-old girl came to the emergency room because of vomiting and poor mental health. The symptoms of gastroenteritis are not so simple. The child's mental state and dehydration did not match the medical history. The blood sugar was found to be seriously out of the normal range, the urine ketone body was strongly positive, and the blood gas showed severe acidosis. It was highly suspected that it was ketoacidosis caused by type 1 diabetes. The child was admitted to the intensive care unit, but fortunately the child recovered quickly. In the process of communicating with parents, parents have a lot of confusion. It is difficult for them to accept that this is a chronic disease that requires life-long drug control, and they do not understand why their children have this disease.

What is type 1 diabetes?

First look at what diabetes is: Diabetes is an increase in blood sugar caused by the body's inability to produce enough insulin or abnormal use of insulin. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, which means that your own immune system destroys its own insulin-producing pancreatic cells, thereby affecting insulin production. Insufficient or lack of insulin can cause high blood sugar. High blood sugar can cause abnormalities in blood vessels and nerves, such as eyes, kidneys and heart. Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease that can develop at any age and is more common in children and adolescents. Treatment is insulin replacement therapy.

The cause of type 1 diabetes

The exact cause is unknown, but it may be genetically related, and it occurs when there is a predisposing factor, such as a viral infection. Risk Factors:
  • Patients with type 1 diabetes in the family
  • White people
  • Finnish or Italian Sardinian and descendants
  • 4-6 and 10-14 year olds, etc.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes

  • thirsty
  • Polyuria
  • Signs of dehydration
  • Eating more but losing weight
  • Loss of appetite in young children;
  • Blurred eyes
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • Irritability and mood changes
  • Long-term diaper rash
  • Fruit taste in mouth and fast breathing
  • Girls often have fungal infections in their private parts.
Type 1 diabetes usually has an abrupt onset and is common in emergency rooms. There are not a few people who come to the doctor because of dehydration and unconsciousness.

Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes

Based on the history and physical examination, doctors may perform a series of tests, including blood tests, if they suspect type 1 diabetes. , urine and other tests. These tests will give a definitive diagnosis.

Treatment of type 1 diabetes

Treatment consists of daily injections of insulin to maintain normoglycemia. Insulin can be injected or by an insulin pump. It will also assist with:
  • Dietary precautions, food calorie calculation, meal time and the relationship between insulin use
  • Exercise
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  • Regular blood sugar and urine ketones, etc.
  • Combination of type 1 diabetes Symptoms

  • Ketoacidosis: When the blood sugar is too high, a large amount of ketone bodies will be produced, and the ketone bodies will change the pH in the blood and cause a series of consequences. Causes brain cells to swell and cause unconsciousness and even death.
  • Hypoglycemia and eye, kidney, nerve, skin, gum, cardiovascular and other problems.
  • How can parents help children with type 1 diabetes? ●

    The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is a great blow to the child and the whole family. The child will feel punished, guilty, afraid of death and angry with others. Parents should first treat their children as normal children and not remind them that they are different from others. Help your child monitor daily routines such as diet, exercise, blood sugar, and insulin injections. Children should pay more attention to observation and testing when they are sick or emotionally unstable.

    When do I need to see a doctor in time?

    When blood sugar is poorly controlled, too high or too low; the child has new symptoms, especially if they are dehydrated or in poor spirits. Type 1 diabetes sounds scary, but once parents get the hang of it, they can handle it. Parents should maintain a peaceful mind, comfort their children, and help them pass through this stage of children and adolescents safely.
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